28 usc section 1331. Current through P.L. 118-14 (published on www.congress.gov on 09/22...

By Connor Cafferty. “Diversity jurisdiction” in federa

Sep 22, 2023 · Current through P.L. 118-14 (published on www.congress.gov on 09/22/2023) Section 1441 - Removal of civil actions. (a) GENERALLY.-Except as otherwise expressly provided by Act of Congress, any civil action brought in a State court of which the district courts of the United States have original jurisdiction, may be removed by the defendant or ... 28 U.S.C. United States Code, 2020 Edition Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION Sec. 1331 - Federal question From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov §1331. Federal question. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising …28 USC 1361: Action to compel an officer of the United States to perform his duty Text contains those laws in effect on October 19, 2023. From Title 28-JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV-JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85-DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION. Jump To: Source CreditCITE AS: 28 USC 1331. § 1332. Diversity of citizenship; amount in controversy; costs. (a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions where the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $75,000, exclusive of interest and costs, and is between—. (1) citizens of different States;Words "or treaties" were substituted for "or treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority," for purposes of brevity. The remaining provisions of section 41 (1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.2016 оны 5-р сарын 16 ... ... 28 U.S.C. § 1331 determines whether federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction under section 27 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ...Jan 1, 2018 · (b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where the plaintiff who files the case originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $75,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to be entitled, and exclusive of interest and ... Official Publications from the U.S. Government Publishing Office. June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 91-577, title III, §143(b), Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat ...28 USC 1331: Federal question Text contains those laws in effect on October 21, 2023. ... The remaining provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.(b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where the plaintiff who files the case originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $75,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to …Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. (See reviser's notes under said sections.) Jurisdiction conferred by other sections of this chapter, except section 1335, is not dependent upon diversity of citizenship.2008 оны 2-р сарын 22 ... Title 28, section 1331 of the United States Code provides the jurisdictional grounding for the majority of cases heard in the federal courts ...authorized to proceed in forma pauperis under 28 U.S.C. § 1915 or as a seaman under 28 U.S.C. § 1916. (d) Waiving Service. (1) Requesting a Waiver. An individual, corpora-tion, or association that is subject to service under Rule 4(e), (f), or (h) has a duty to avoid unnecessary expenses of serving the summons. The plaintiff may1957-Pub. L. 85–315 inserted "and elective franchise" in section catchline and added par. (4). 1954-Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted "section 1985 of Title 42" for "section 47 of Title 8" wherever appearing. Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries Effective Date of 1979 Amendment28 U.S.C. § 1331. Current through P.L. 118-13 (published on www.congress.gov on 08/07/2023) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions …The provisions of section 71 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with respect to removal of actions under the Federal Employer’s Liability Act (U.S.C., 1940 ed., title 45, Railroads, §§ 51–60) and actions against a carrier for loss, damage, or delay to shipments under section 20 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation, are incorporated ... May 17, 2016 · The federal district court denied plaintiff’s attempt to remand to state court on two grounds. First, pursuant to the general federal question jurisdiction statute, 28 U.S.C. § 1331, the case was deemed a “civil action [] arising under” federal law. Second, based on the Act’s Section 27 specific jurisdictional provision, the federal ... CITE AS: 28 USC 1332. § 1333. Admiralty, maritime and prize cases. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of: (1) Any civil case of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, saving to suitors in all cases all other remedies to which they are otherwise entitled.28 U.S. Code § 1331 - Federal question. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. (June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 930; Pub. L. 85–554, § 1, July 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 94–574, § 2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 96 ... L. 94–583 substituted ‘‘citizens oramendment made by this Act to section 1332(c), title 28, subjects of a foreign state are additional parties; and’’ for ‘‘foreign states or citizens or subjects thereof are additional parties’’. ... set out as a note under section 1331 of this title. §1333. Admiralty, maritime and prize casesSection 23-1331 - Definitions. As used in this subchapter: (1) The term "judicial officer" means, unless otherwise indicated, any person or court in the District of Columbia authorized pursuant to section 3041 of Title 18, United States Code, or the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, to bail or otherwise release a person before trial or sentencing or pending …1957—Pub. L. 85–315 inserted “and elective franchise” in section catchline and added par. (4). 1954—Act Sept. 3, 1954, substituted “section 1985 of Title 42” for “section 47 of Title 8” wherever appearing.Contained Within. Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE. PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE. CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION. Sec. 1331 - Federal question.In any civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction founded solely on section 1332 of this title, the district courts shall not have supplemental jurisdiction under subsection (a) over claims by plaintiffs against persons made parties under Rule 14, 19, 20, or 24 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or over claims by persons proposed to be joined as plaintiffs under ...Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 41(17) ... A court shall decline to hear a claim under this section if the claimant has not exhausted adequate and available remedies in the place in which the conduct giving rise to the claim occurred. “(c) Statute of Limitations. ...Section 1331 - Federal question View Metadata. Metadata. Publication Title: United States Code, 2006 Edition, Supplement 5, Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE: Category: Bills and Statutes: Collection: United States Code: ... 28 USC § 1331 (2011) §1331. Federal question.(b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where a plaintiff who files the case under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $10,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to be ...Section 1331 - Federal question View Metadata. Metadata. Publication Title: United States Code, 2006 Edition, Supplement 5, Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE: Category: Bills and Statutes: Collection: United States Code: ... 28 USC § 1331 (2011) §1331. Federal question.Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION Sec. 1343 - Civil rights and elective franchisejurisdictional section of title 28 of the United States Code, such as sec- ... claimed under 28 U.S.C. § 1331, the general federal question statute, which ...CITE AS: 28 USC 1332. § 1333. Admiralty, maritime and prize cases. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of: (1) Any civil case of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, saving to suitors in all cases all other remedies to which they are otherwise entitled.Although the language of Section 1331 is similar to the constitutional text authorizing the grant of federal question jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has held that the statutory grant of jurisdiction in Section 1331 is narrower than the full authority Congress might choose to confer consistent with the constitutional authorization. 11 Footnote 28 USC 1331: Federal question Text contains those laws in effect on October 19, 2023. ... The remaining provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology.28 USC. §1332. “complete diversity”. Strawbridge. Federal. Question. III, §2. 28 USC. §1331. “well pleaded complaint rule”. Mottley. Page 3. Express grant. OJ ...28 U.S.C. United States Code, 2020 Edition Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION Sec. 1331 - Federal question From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov §1331. Federal question. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising …Citation: 28 U.S.C. § 1367 (2021) Section Name §1367. Supplemental jurisdiction: Section Text (a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) or as expressly provided otherwise by Federal statute, in any civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction, the district courts shall have supplemental jurisdiction over all other claims that are so related to claims …under 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1346; it in no way prohibits an assertion of jurisdiction under section 1334.'”34 Instead, the. Eleventh Circuit concluded that ...Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. (See reviser's notes under said sections.) Jurisdiction conferred by other sections of this chapter, except section 1335, is not dependent upon diversity of citizenship. This section amends section 1333(a)(1) of title 28, U.S.C., by substituting “suitors” for “libellant or petitioner” to conform to the language of the law in existence at the time of the enactment of the revision of title 28. Amendments. 1949—Subd. (1). Act May 24, 1949, substituted “suitors” for “libellant or petitioner”.Under Section 1331, federal courts have jurisdiction over civil actions that “arise under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States.”. Most cases brought in federal court rely on section 1331 for jurisdiction.[4] The most obvious case in which section 1331 applies is when federal law creates the cause of action.§1331. Federal question ... The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the ...(b) In any civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction founded solely on section 1332 of this title, the district courts shall not have supplemental jurisdiction under subsection (a) over claims by plaintiffs against persons made parties under Rule 14, 19, 20, or 24 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, or over ...The provisions of section 71 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with respect to removal of actions under the Federal Employer's Liability Act (U.S.C., 1940 ed., title 45, Railroads, §§51–60) and actions against a carrier for loss, damage, or delay to shipments under section 20 of title 49, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Transportation, are incorporated in ...Section consolidates section 41(7) with section 371 (5) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology. Words "of any civil action" were substituted for "all suits at law or in equity" and "cases" to conform section to Rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Official Publications from the U.S. Government Publishing Office. This section restates the last sentence of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Words “at law or in equity” before “in the courts of such State” were omitted as unnecessary.28 U.S.C § 1331 (1976) provides in part: ... constitutional rights deprivation theories using section 1983 and 1343, and federal question theories using section ...Read this complete 28 U.S.C. § 1331 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 28. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure § 1331. Federal question on Westlaw. FindLaw Codes may not …Govt. Manual December 2022 - Congress 1) Govt. Manual December 2022 - Congress United States Government Manual. Legislative Branch. December 31, 2022.... was created by Article I, section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787, providing that “All legislative Powers herein granted …CITE AS: 28 USC 1331. § 1332. Diversity of citizenship; amount in controversy; costs. (a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions where the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $75,000, exclusive of interest and costs, and is between—. (1) citizens of different States;Section consolidates sections 451, 452 and 453 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology necessary to effect the consolidation. Words “for the purpose of an inquiry into the cause of restraint of liberty” in section 452 of title 28 , U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as merely descriptive of the writ.Title 28, section 1331 of the United States Code provides the jurisdictional grounding for the majority of cases heard in the federal courts, yet it is not well understood. The predominant view holds that section 1331 doctrine both lacks a focus upon congressional intent and is internally inconsistent. I seek to counter both these …28 USC 1331: Federal question Text contains those laws in effect on January 4, 1995 From Title 28-JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV-JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85-DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION Section consolidates provision in section 41(20) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., as to time limitation for bring-ing actions against the United States under section 1346(a) of this title, with section 942 of said title 28. Words ‘‘or within one year after the date of enact-ment of this Act whichever is later’’, in section 942 of(See annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C.A., and 35 C.J.S., p. 833 et seq., §§30–43. See, also, reviser's note under section 1332 of this title.) Words "wherein the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $3,000, exclusive of interest and costs," were added to conform to rulings of the Supreme Court.Pub. L. 97–164, title I, §166, Apr. 2, 1982, 96 Stat. 50, provided that: "Notwithstanding the provisions of section 45(a) of title 28, United States Code, the first chief judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall be the Chief Judge of the United States Court of Claims or the Chief Judge of the United States ... Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where a plaintiff who files the case under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $10,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant may be adjudged to be entitled ... 1978—Pub. L. 95–598, title II, § 241(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2671, directed the addition of item for chapter 90, “District Courts and Bankruptcy Courts”, which amendment did not become effective pursuant to section 402(b) of Pub. L. 95–598, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where a plaintiff who files the case under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $10,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the defendant …28 USC 1337: Commerce and antitrust regulations; amount in controversy, costs Text contains those laws in effect on September 28, 2023. ... 1983-Pub. L. 97–449 substituted "section 11707 of title 49" for "section 20(11) of part I …Jan 1, 2018 · The removal of an action under this subsection shall be made in accordance with section 1446 of this title, except that a notice of removal may also be filed before trial of the action in State court within 30 days after the date on which the defendant first becomes a party to an action under section 1369 in a United States district court that arises from the same accident as the action in ... This section restates the last sentence of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Words “at law or in equity” before “in the courts of such State” were omitted as unnecessary.28 USC. §1332. “complete diversity”. Strawbridge. Federal. Question. III, §2. 28 USC. §1331. “well pleaded complaint rule”. Mottley. Page 3. Express grant. OJ ...28 U.S.C. United States Code, 2020 Edition Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85 ... 1331. Federal question. 1332. Diversity of citizenship; amount in controversy; costs. 1333. Admiralty, maritime and prize cases. 1334. Bankruptcy cases and proceedings. 1335. Interpleader. 1336. Surface ...Section consolidates the venue provisions of sections 645, 864, 1356, and 1392 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions with sections 1141(b)(1)(2)(3) to title 26, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Internal Revenue and sections 225(d) and 865 of said title 48. Other provisions of said section 864, not incorporated in this section and ...Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, and 1354 of this title. Provisions of section 80 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for payment of costs upon dismissal of an action for lack of jurisdiction are incorporated in section 1919 of this title.Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1342, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Words "civil actions, suits or proceedings" were substituted for "suits of a civil nature, at common law or in equity" in view of Rules 2 and 81(a)(7) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.28 U.S. Code § 2201 - Creation of remedy. In a case of actual controversy within its jurisdiction, except with respect to Federal taxes other than actions brought under section 7428 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a proceeding under section 505 or 1146 of title 11, or in any civil action involving an antidumping or countervailing duty ...28 U.S.C. § 1331 (2015) §1331. Federal question. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States.(See annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C.A., and 35 C.J.S., p. 833 et seq., §§30–43. See, also, reviser's note under section 1332 of this title .) Words "wherein the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $3,000, exclusive of interest and costs," were added to conform to rulings of the Supreme Court. 1330. TITLE 28—JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE. item 1330, inserted a period after ‘‘question’’ in item 1331, substituted ‘‘plant variety protection, copyrights, mask works, trade-marks,’’ for ‘‘copyrights, and trade- marks’’ in item 1338, and inserted ‘‘and elective fran- chise’’ in item 1343.Other provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1331, 1332, 1341, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Words “at law or in equity” before “in the courts of such State” were omitted as unnecessary.(b) Except when express provision therefor is otherwise made in a statute of the United States, where a plaintiff who files the case under section 11706 or 14706 of title 49, originally in the Federal courts is finally adjudged to be entitled to recover less than the sum or value of $10,000, computed without regard to any setoff or counterclaim to which the …Judiciary and Judicial Procedure 28 USCA Section 1331. Read the code on FindLaw ... state laws, and the United States Code. For more information about the legal concepts addressed by these cases and statutes, visit ... 28 U.S.C. § 1331 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 28. Judiciary and Judicial Procedure § 1331. Federal question ...Section consolidates sections 451, 452 and 453 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with changes in phraseology necessary to effect the consolidation. Words “for the purpose of an inquiry into the cause of restraint of liberty” in section 452 of title 28 , U.S.C., 1940 ed., were omitted as merely descriptive of the writ.Section 1331 2022-07-14T19:45:30-05:00 – Table of Contents – 28 U.S. Code § 1331 – Federal Question (through July 14, 2022) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States.§1331. Approval. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if any application made by an Indian, Indian tribe, Indian council, or any band or group of Indians under any law requiring the approval of the Secretary of the Interior or the Commissioner of Indian Affairs of contracts or agreements relating to the employment of legal counsel (including the choice of counsel and …Section consolidates certain provisions of sections 41(3), 371(3) and 371(4) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Other provisions of sections 41(3) and 371(4), relating to seizures, are incorporated in section 1356 of this title .Pub. L. 96–486, §1, Dec. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 2369, provided: "That this Act [amending section 1331 of this title and section 2072 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1331 of this title] may be cited as the 'Federal Question Jurisdictional Amendments Act of 1980'."28 USC 1333: Admiralty, maritime and prize cases Text contains those laws in effect on October 19, 2023. ... Provisions of section 41(3) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., based on the 1917 and 1922 amendments, relating to remedies under State workmen's compensation laws, were deleted. Such amendments were held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.7 Section 1331 provides federal courts the power to hear civil claims involving the Constitution or federal laws, and these claims can include lawsuits against ...The federal district court denied plaintiff’s attempt to remand to state court on two grounds. First, pursuant to the general federal question jurisdiction statute, 28 U.S.C. § 1331, the case was deemed a “civil action [] arising under” federal law. Second, based on the Act’s Section 27 specific jurisdictional provision, the federal ...This section amends section 1333(a)(1) of title 28, U.S.C., by substituting “suitors” for “libellant or petitioner” to conform to the language of the law in existence at the time of the enactment of the revision of title 28. Amendments. 1949—Subd. (1). Act May 24, 1949, substituted “suitors” for “libellant or petitioner”.This section corrects typographical errors in section 1346(a)(1) of title 28, U.S.C., and in section 1346(b) of such title. References in Text. The internal-revenue laws, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), are classified generally to Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. Sections 8(g)(1) and 10(a)(1) of the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, referred to in ...Contained Within. Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE. PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE. CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION. Sec. 1331 - Federal question. Section consolidates certain provisions of sections 41(3), 371(3) and 371(4) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. ... Provisions of section 41(3) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., based on the 1917 and 1922 amendments, relating to remedies under State workmen’s compensation laws, were deleted. Such amendments were held unconstitutional by the Supreme .... However, instead of submitting to the agencies well-est(See annotations under former section 41 of title 28, U.S.C. 28 U.S.C. United States Code, 2020 Edition Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE PART IV - JURISDICTION AND VENUE CHAPTER 85 - DISTRICT COURTS; JURISDICTION Sec. 1331 - Federal question From the U.S. Government Publishing Office, www.gpo.gov §1331. Federal question. The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising …28 USC 1331: Federal question Text contains those laws in effect on October 18, 2023. ... The remaining provisions of section 41(1) of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., are incorporated in sections 1332, 1341, 1342, 1345, 1354, and 1359 of this title. Changes were made in arrangement and phraseology. volving the meaning of 28 U.S.C. § 1331, the federal statute con Section 1331 2022-07-14T19:45:30-05:00 – Table of Contents – 28 U.S. Code § 1331 – Federal Question (through July 14, 2022) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. Searchable text of the 28 USC 1441 - Removal of civil ac...

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